071_Global12_InFocus_DRC_V8

Global issue 12

In FocusThe Democratic Republic of Congo Credit: UN Photo/A Burridge Since 1994, more than 5.4 million people have died while millions more have been displaced Congolese War’ (1995–97). But Kabila the shadows by a Congolese Tutsi, Gen- now in the FDLR were born in Congo. later resented Rwandan dominance and eral Bosco Ntaganda, who has been n Mai Mai:Assorted militia groups named fell out with the Kigali government. indicted by the International Criminal after local warlords or tribes – for exam- So another Tutsi-dominated group, the Court for war crimes. The role of M23 ple, Mai Mai Morgan or Mai Mai Gede- Rassemblement Congolais pour la Dé- is similar to its predecessors – protect on. Some are effectively armies, with uni- mocratie (RCD), emerged to fight Ka- Congolese Tutsis, plunder resources and forms and ranks; others are just brigands. bila in the broader ‘Second Congolese serve as a buffer for Rwanda. It includes War’ (1998–2003). some of the same personnel as the RCD. There is often overlap between the above Today, the Tutsi-dominated rebel n Forces Démocratiques pour la Libéra- main groups. Money-making or logistical group in eastern Congo is called the tion du Rwanda (FDLR): The original convenience can sometimes trump ethnic M23, after a failed peace agreement core of this band of Hutu rebels was the loyalty – for example, the Tutsi-dominated signed on 23 March 2009. It’s led from remnants of the génocidaires, but many M23 employs Hutu foot soldiers.  1970s - 1990s  1971, Oct: Mobutu 1973–74: 1993: Rival pro- 1996–97: Tutsi 1999, July: Lusaka renames the country Mobutu nationalises and anti-Mobutu rebels capture much of peace agreement among Zaïre and himself Mobutu most foreign-owned governments the east. the parties and countries Sese Seko, and orders businesses and expels established. in the civil war. all citizens to adopt European investors. 1997, May: With ‘authentic’ African names 1994: Mobutu Rwandan military and clothing. 1977–78: Katangan appoints Kengo Wa support, rebels capture rebels based in Angola Dondo as prime minister. Kinshasa, Laurent Kabila invade twice but are is named president and repelled with the help of the country is renamed Moroccan, French and the Democratic Republic Belgian troops. of Congo. 1990: Under domestic against Kabila with, Aug: Rebellion1998 and foreign pressure, Rwandan and Ugandan Mobutu agrees to end his support, but Angola ban on multi-party politics and Zimbabwe help and appoints a transitional protect Kinshasa and government, but retains Lubumbashi. extensive power. globalfourth quarter 2012 www.global-briefing.org l71


Global issue 12
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